A high stone wall ran down from the city towards the seashore, raising an impassible barrier across the road to Iran and the Roman Empire. The famous Arab geographer Al-Yaqoubi tells about a 9th-century city in Sughd and also mentions this passage. Derbent’s old district contains mosques, elegant old homes, and the ruins of a medieval caravanserai. They called the city “Bab al-Abwab” or the “Gate of Gates.” They associated the city with Surah Al-Kahf in the Qu'ran, which narrates Alexander the Great's efforts to construct a gigantic iron gate to keep people from the north out of Persia. (2018, October 01). Unknown February 24, 2018 at 5:39 AM. Although it was taken once by the Ottoman Turks in 1583 CE following the Persian defeat at the Battle of Torches during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578-1590 CE), it remained in Persian hands until 1813 CE when the Russians occupied and annexed Derbent and Dagestan. The best result they achieved was 4th place in Zone 2, Subgroup 2 of the Soviet Second League in 1969. Shop Wayfair.ca this Cyber Week for the best Cyber Week Sales On Stair Tread Rugs. These Iron gates owns señor Tamurbek. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). The city of Derbent is located in southern Russia in what is present-day Dagestan. For the district in Konya Province, Turkey, see Derbent, Konya. Durin the 5t an 6t centuries Derbent becomes an important centre for spreadin the Christian faith in the Caucasus an aw. A strategic fortress at the Iron Gates was established by the Persians in the late 5th or early 6th cent. He saw two folding gates cased with iron and hung with bells. During the wall’s construction in the late 6th century CE, the Sasanians employed dry brickwork and made blocks on lime mortar. These walls also extend nearly 500 m (1640 ft) into the Caspian sea itself to protect Derbent’s harbor. as a bulwark against northern invaders, survive. 2) The wall in central Asia near Bukhara and Tirmidh in … Last modified October 01, 2018. Orchards and vineyards are cultivated. Enjoy the sale all month long! The Arab writer and historian Ibn-Arabshah called the gate "Qagalgar", in particular, tells in some detail about the battle of Amir Timur with Emir Hussein in this territory. B. UNESCO declared Derbent's citadel, ancient city, and defensive walls to be a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003 CE. This mountain is very high, but it has a passage through which you can cross it by a cleft that seems to have been made by human hands: high mountains rise on both sides, and it is flat and very deep. Derbent is situated quite close to the head of the Samur River, the Rubas River, and the Sukhodol River within the Caucasus Mountain range. 2) The wall in Central Asia near Bukhara and Tirmiz in a place called Derbent. The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog ) from invading the land to the south. Derbent remained relatively prosperous as it changed hands from the Arabs to the Seljuk Turks to the Azeris to the Mongols and Timurids, and back to the Persians over the course of seven centuries. Wiener, James B. Tuscany panels 5. Their emergence, which is one of the signs of the Hour. 18, Oybek str., Tashkent, 100015, Uzbekistan. The wall in Dagistan Russia also known as Derbent on the coast of the Caspian sea, it is a border fortress between two walls stretching from the mountains to the sea. The Khazars - allied to the Byzantine Empire under Emperor Heraclius (r. 610-641 CE) during the Third Perso-Turkic War (627-629 CE) - attacked and seized Derbent in 627 CE. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. 4) The wall which is in the westerly direction to the third in the region of the Caucasus. Think Again, Moscow Says" -- New York Times, "How has Russiaâ€™s oldest mosque stood for 1,300 years?" Ancient History Encyclopedia. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. For several millennia, the mysterious Surkhandarya has attracted the attention of conquerors, travelers and explorers. She was described as a beautiful and blooming girl, with whom the General fell in love during a feast, when she led a dance in a circle. He holds an MA in World History with a particular interest in cross-cultural exchange and world history. The wall, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been identified with two locations: the Pass of Derbent, Russia or with the Pass of Dariel, west of the Caspian Sea. People have long recognized the strategic importance of the area in and around Derbent. Web. It was the Greek historian Herodotus who first mentioned Derbent's unusual geographical features in his writings about Scythian activities in the Near East; however, archaeologists working in the 1970s CE have shown that the hilltop on which Derbent's citadel now rests has been settled since the 8th century BCE. It should be noted that the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania had also acted as a vassal state to the Roman Empire on several occasions as well. From there they arrived at Derbent and saw the wall. The Arabs, who took Derbent in 728, made it a commercial and cultural center. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary”... Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and... Construction of the current citadel, fortified walls, and, "Derbent as Russiaâ€™s Oldest City? ", Cuneo, P. "LE MURA DI DERBENT: Note sulla topografia e la morfologia urbana di una cittaÌ€-stato del limes islamico nell'area caucasica. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. Cite This Work 122-125; Mu jam-ul-Buldan: under Bab-ulAbwab). The citadel of Derbent is located upon a lofty enclosure of three slopes, and it is protected by enormous walls, which are 2.5-3.2 m (8.2-10.5 ft) thick, 10-15 m (33-49 ft) in height, and 700 m (2297 ft) in length. Sadly, one of the southern walls was destroyed in the late 19th century CE. In the middle of this passage there is the village piled above him at the top of a high mountain. Derbent’s commercial districts lie close to the waterfront and thus between the parallel defense walls. We said, ‘O Dhu’l Qarnain, either punish them, or treat them with kindness.’ https://www.ancient.eu/Derbent/. In Persian, Derbent is formed from the compound of “dar,” meaning “gate,” and “band,” meaning “knot” or “barrier.”. This ancient fortress, during the 1st and 2nd centuries CE, was under the control of the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania, which acted as a buffer state between the Romans and the Persians. Wiener, James B. Later, academician Eduard Rtveladze concluded that the Iron gate is a common name for a whole complex of defensive structures formed from both natural and artificial structures, and they occupied the territory between the Buzgalakhan gorge and the current village of Derbent. The citadel contains a number of important archaeological remains, ancient and medieval structures, and even an Islamic bathhouse. A.D., and remains of the Caucasian Wall (also called Alexander's Wall), built by the Persians in the 6th cent. Written by James Blake Wiener, published on 01 October 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The city’s population swelled to about 50,000, and the celebrated Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid (r. 786-809 CE) even lived in Derbent for a short duration. An even older fortress once existed here, and it was likely built by ancient peoples to withstand incursions from the Scythians. It played professionally in 1966–1970, 1992 and 1995–1996. Gate of Gates, the Tartars, the Mongols and the Turks as Temir-Kapi, i.e. A strategic fortress at the Iron Gates was established by the Persians in the late 5th or early 6th cent. Related Content Although a devastating description of the siege and Derbent’s fall is imparted by the 10th-century CE Armenian historian Movses Kaghankatvatsi in his The History of the Country of Albania, the Khazars soon lost Derbent themselves to the Arabs c. 643 CE. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Originally 73 defense towers were constructed, and 46 of those were located in a portion of Derbent’s northern wall. "Derbent." Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent. The Kurganzol Fortress as it is called is located east of Derbent in Uzbekistan, ... this is the activity of Alexander in building the iron wall as a barrier to the entry of scythian gog magog tribe (yakjuj and makjuj in al-qur'an). The southern region of Uzbekistan is fascinating for its ancient monuments, natural attractions and cultural heritage. Throughout its ancient and medieval history, Derbent was only one of two crossings through the Caucasus mountain range, and the city attracted the attention of foreign merchants traversing the famed Silk Road as well as the notice of great military powers. Although the area in and around Derbent has been continuously inhabited since at least the 8th century BCE, Shah Yazdegerd II (r. 438-457 CE) of the Persian Sasanian Empire founded Derbent in 438 CE as a fortress city to curb raids from nomadic peoples into the Caucasus from Central Asia. Blessed with a warm climate, Derbent is concurrently Russia’s oldest and southernmost city, and it abords the Caspian Sea. Following the construction of Derbent's fortified walls by Shah Yazdegerd II (r. 438-457 CE), Derbent withstood numerous attacks over the next 300 years by the White Huns, Khazars, and other nomadic tribes that threatened the Persian heartlands. It stands on a narrow strip of land that forms a natural pass (the Caspian, or Iron, Gates) between the Caucasian foothills and the sea. A total of nine out of the original 14 ancient gates survive. A.D., and remains of the Caucasian Wall (also called Alexander's Wall), built by the Persians in the 6th cent. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaDhul-Qarnayn with the help of some jinn, building the Iron Wall to keep the barbarian Gog and Magog from civilized peoples. Many Jews, Georgians, and Armenians came to settle in Derbent, giving the city a cosmopolitan flavor in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Era. This clearly shows that even up till the third century of Hijrah the Muslim scholars regarded this wall of the Caucasus as the wall of Zul-Qarnain. In his two poems about the gates of Sogdiana, Alisher Navoi mentioned and Babur in his work "Babur-nameh". He is a co-founder of Ancient History Encyclopedia and formerly was its Communications Director. The southern region of Uzbekistan is fascinating for its ancient monuments, natural attractions and cultural heritage. Rui Gonzales de Clavijo, a Spanish diplomat and traveler, was passing through this gate. It is also believed that it was in Derbent that Alexander played his wedding with Roxana, a Bactrian Princess. -- Russia Beyond the Headlines, "Russiaâ€™s oldest city: 5,000 and counting" -- RT, Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent -- UNESCO, 6,511 Miles from Derbent: Matryoshka Stories. And they bring him a large income every year.". Desc: FC Derbent was a Russian football team from Derbent. Indeed the high wall was so thick that a cart could be driven along its top. ( He is most commonly identified with Alexander the Great). (16th-century Persian miniature)The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog ) from … How ever there was omce a Portal to this part of the Domension which is closed by Dhil Qarmain. It is near another Derbend in Central asia, Hissar District, about 150 miles south-east of Bukhara. Derbent was a dependable outpost of the Western world and an impregnable fortress perched on a mountaintop. Categories of Revolutionary Military Policy, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, Bonner, M. "Al-KhalÄ«fa Al-Mará¸Ä«: The Accession of HÄrÅ«n Al-RashÄ«d. Cast iron panels Like our balusters, our steel scrolls are made with both round and square material. ". The Persian Sasanian Empire annexed the Caucasian Kingdom of Albania c. 252-253 CE, rendering it little more than a vassal. The Arabs were impressed by Derbent's size and wealth, and they greatly appreciated the citadel and the mighty walls of Derbent. Derbent contains two walls that are located approximately 300-400 m apart and extend nearly 4 km (2.5 miles) from the mountain citadel to the Caspian Sea. Cyrus the Great in the Quran is a theory that identifies Dhul-Qarnayn, a figure mentioned in verses 18:83-98 of the Quran, with Cyrus the Great. Reply. Break Free of the Iron Wall. Derbent prospered for over 1,500 years under Persian, Arab, Turkish, Azeri, Mongol, Timurid, and Russian rule due to its position on the Silk Road and geostrategic importance as the gateway to the Caucasus. Iron Gate, the Georgians as Degvis-Kari, i.e. Rebecca panels (fancy additions to your interior and exterior) 4. The gates were a popular subject in medieval travel literature, starting with the Alexander Romance in a version from perhaps the 7th century. A total of nine out of the original 14 ancient gates survive. Dhu l-Qarnayn directs them to bring pieces of iron, which are melted in a fire to form a wall that can neither be scaled nor pierced, barring the way between two cliffs. The modern name, a Persian word meaning “iron gates,” came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century, when the city was refounded by Kavadh of the Sassanian dynasty of Persia. The modern city center grew near the seafront, and it expanded rapidly in the 20th century CE. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 01 Oct 2018. Derbent. Reply Delete. It played professionally in 1966–1970, 1992 and 1995–1996. He defends the Kingdom of Samarkand from the side of smaler India. The Arabs, who took Derbent in 728, made it a commercial and cultural center. VII, pp. Derbent’s ancient city, citadel, wall, and other constructions cover an area of around 10 ha, extending additionally outward some 200 ha from there as a buffer zone. I follow the traditional view that Yajuj Majuj are humanoids and are enclosed im some orther dimension instead of a place on earth. Derbent (sometimes "Derbend" or "Darbend") is an ancient city located along the Caspian Sea in what is present-day Russia. For several millennia, the mysterious Surkhandarya has attracted the attention of conquerors, travelers and explorers. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. It was the shortest way to get from Bukhara, Samarkand and Chach (Shash) to Bactria and India, and back from India and Bactria to the Central cities of Central Asia. And there is no other passage to enter the lands of Samarkand except through it; nor can the inhabitants of the Samarkand Empire enter the lands of India except through this passage. They also constructed the Juma Mosque, the oldest mosque in Russia, in 734 CE over the remains of an old Christian basilica. In the "Sogdian rock" he hid during the capture of the Alexander’s attacks of natural fortresses in Sogdiana. Under Persian Safavid rule (1501-1736 CE), Derbent lay close to the frontier region with the Ottoman Empire and Russia. (AIBidayah Vol. The wall of Darial Pass which is between Gorgia and southern Russia in the Caucasus mountain range. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. Derbent, Baysun, Kashkadarya region, Uzbekistan Ancient History Encyclopedia. ‘Bring me blocks of iron.’ They did so till, when he had levelled up the space between the two mountain sides, he said, ‘Now blow with your bellows.’ They blew till, when he had made it red as fire, he said, ‘Bring me molten copper that I may pour it thereon.’ There was, however, a brief period of 12 years in which the Russians occupied Derbent from 1723-1735 CE. An impressive mountain wall acted as a line of defense, spreading over a remarkable 40 km (25 miles) in a westward direction away from Derbent and through the Caucasus Mountains. The main attraction - the fortress complex of Derbent. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Wiener, J. These walls also extend nearly 500 m (1640 ft) into the Caspian sea itself to protect Derbent’s harbor. Books In the Middle ages, the pass occupied an important strategic place, as it was followed by numerous trade caravans and troops. English Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it setting in a pool of murky water, and near it he found a people. Following to Transoxiana to receive Amir Timur, in his" Diary of a journey to Samarkand to the court of Timur " (1403-1406) gave a detailed description of his journey through the gate: "The next day, Monday, we rested at the foot of a high mountain, on the top of which stood a beautiful cruciform building, elaborately made of brick, with many patterns made up of colored tiles. It is said that when other powerful nations will come to an end, the Chinese will rise and invade the whole world, eating humans. Derbent (English) Дербент (Russ "Derbent." gorge called Iron Gate - the only year-round passage that supposedly Alexander of Macedon blocked by a gigantic grid to prevent nomadic hordes coming from the north, that from time to time ransacked Sogdiana. Derbent became a strang militar ootpost an harbour o the Sassanid empire. One of the most interesting conclusions made by the historian Eduard Rtveladze is about the place of refuge on this territory of the father of Roxana, the wife of Alexander the Great - Oxyart. Derbent is well served by public transport, with its own harbor, a railway going south to Baku, and the Baku to Rostov-on-Don road. Enjoy Free Shipping on most stuff, even big stuff. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description o the sack o Derbent bi the hordes o Tong Yabghu o the Wastren Turkic Khaganate in 627. Construction of the current citadel, fortified walls, and city walls began c. 570 CE at the request of Shah Khosrow I (531-579 CE) who is widely remembered by Persians today as one of their greatest rulers. Derbent is usually identified with Albana, the capital of the ancient Albania. Curiously, Alexander the Great, has been traditionally associated with Derbent and its fortress; he is said to have ordered the construction to defend his newly conquered lands in the south from the barbarians to the north, but there is no substance to this legend. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. In reality, … One of the most mysterious places, perhaps, in all of Central Asia – the famous mountain pass - Iron gate, located in the Baysun district on the territory of the village of Derbent. Tradition also connects it to the Great Wall of Gorgan (Red Snake) on its south-eastern shore. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). 78,000), SE European Russia, in Dagestan, on the Caspian Sea. A small town grew up around this ancient fortress in the 4th century BCE, and it is probable that the Roman general Pompey mentions this same town and fortress in the accounts of his c. 65 BCE campaign to the Caucasus. Probably after 508, though the date is disputed, the long fortification walls at Besh Barmak and Šīrvān/Gil’ginchaĭ were constructed in a combination of mud brick, stone blocks, and baked bricks; as they probably served as models for the massive rebuilding of the fortifications at Darband (Khan-Magomedov, 1979, p. 40), their construction serves as a terminus post quem for the latter. The Caucasus Mountains near Derbent are less 3 km (1.8 miles) from the shores of the Caspian Sea, meaning that the mountains almost extend directly to the seashore. Derbent’s success as a city & importance in history is rooted in its special geographic location. as a bulwark against northern invaders, survive. The Great Wall of China or Gog and Magog wall? Derbent contains two walls that are located approximately 300-400 m apart and extend nearly 4 km (2.5 miles) from the mountain citadel to the Caspian Sea. Although we stock standard sizes and popular styles, scrolls can b… Aluminum panels 7. 02 Dec 2020. “S” shaped scrolls 3. Thus the expected Yajooj Majooj wall location by some of the Kings in previous times was stated to be The Great Wall of China, built by the Chinese King Fagfor, almost about 3460 years after Prophet Adam was born. There is no iron gate there now, but there was one in 7 th century when the Chinese traveler Hiouen Tsiang saw it on his journey to India. Sea Gate, the Russians as Derben, i.e. 3) The wall in Dagestan, Russia also known as Derbent near the Caspian sea. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. Derbent’s success as a city and importance in history is rooted in its special geographic location. This article is about the city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia. Derbent thus was an essential area in the management of the flow of peoples moving to and from the Caucasus. ", Gadjiev, M. "On the Construction Date of the Derbend Fortification Complex. Our forged steel scrolls and panels are available in the following styles: 1. The Iron gate has been repeatedly mentioned in written sources of Chinese, Central Asian, and Arab historians and geographers.In 630, Xuanzang described in his notes the gorge as a defensive passage covered with iron and locked with a double-leaf gate.
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